1997 Solo Exhibition, Inax Gallery, Sapporo, Japan.
1998 Dos cubanas soñadoras, Gallery Space 21, Tokyo, Japan.
1988 Latin American Art Gallery Promo-Arte, Tokyo, Japan.
1998 CubartEx, Municipal Art Museums of Hiroshima, Okinawa, Tokyo, Kyoto, and Fukushima, Japan.
2003 Sandra Ramos 1989-2003, Fuchu Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan.
2003 (Sep) Insomnias y premoniciones / Insomnias and Premonitions, Galeria Promo-Arte, Tokyo, Japan
2007 (May 29-Sep 9) Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
2007 (Oct 7-Dec 31) Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection, John & Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, FL
2009 (Oct 3-Jan 4) Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection, Jordan Schnitzer Museum, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR
2010 (Oct 15-Jan 10) Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
2010 (Feb-Apr 4) Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection, Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
2010 (Jun 27-Sep 19) Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection, Katonah Museum of Art, Katonah, NY
Catalogue,Sandra Ramos 1989-2003 (Tokyo: Fuchu Art Museum, 2003), cover and p. 24 illus. Abelardo Mena Chicuri, Cuba Avant-Garde: Contemporary Cuban Art from the Farber Collection (University of Florida Press, 2007). Sandra Contreras, ed., Sandra Ramos, Instalaciones 1993-2009 (Seville, Spain: Escandón Impresores, 2009?), p. 10.
2010 (May 6–Jul 4) Centro de Arte La Regenta, Las Palmas de Gran Canarias, Spain
2011 (Aug 4) Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam, Havana, Cuba
2011 (Oct 27) Fondation Clément, Martinique
2011 (Sep 25) Océano digital: Travesías por incertidumbres. Curator: Javier Flores. Sala Puerta Nueva, Córdoba, Spain
2012 (April) Festival de Cine Pobre de Gibara
2012 (May) Las Metáforas del cambio. Collateral exhibition, XI Havana Bienal, Factoría Habana
2012 (Jun 3) Horizontes Insulares. Curator: Orlando Brito. Museo de Arte Moderno de Santo Domingo, R.D.
Amei Wallach, “Havana Biennal,” Art in America (4 Sept 2012).
b. 1969, resides in Cuba
In the 1990s, a compulsion to escape its own borders took hold of Cuban culture. With the rupture of political and economic ties to the Soviet Union and the Communist bloc, the island drifted back into the solitude of the Caribbean Sea and conflictive proximity to the United States. It was the time of the so-called “Special Period,” the exodus toward Mexico of a great part of the young intelligentsia that had created the Cuban Renaissance, and, in 1994, the “rafter crisis.” In the social imagination, to emigrate and live “outside” stopped being an option reserved only for apátridas—those without a homeland—and became instead a tolerated, even necessary way of securing the economic and living conditions that the country could not furnish. Now the Motherland was carried on the soles of your shoes. The hegemony of the island as the exclusive locus of cubanidad was decisively shattered, and the dynamic mobility implicit in Cuban history was reincarnated in Cubans themselves.
The image of Cuba as the terra firma described by José Martí as “where the palm tree grows” (Valentín Sanz Carta, Domingo Ramos, Tomás Sánchez) had been replaced by navigational charts, with which the island broke its ties and was set adrift like a boat or a pneumatic raft. By means of prints, installations, sculptural objects, and drawings, Sandra Ramos contributed a peculiar vision to the phenomenon. The engravings made around 1993 transformed her vision of the tropics into a narrative of families, friendships, and a culture torn apart by migration, and were a critical testament to the servility toward foreigners and the commercialization of values. From this emerged one of her best known works, La maldita circunstancia del agua por todas partes (The Damned Circumstance of Water Everywhere), in which Ramos symbolically fused her body with the island’s geography, fenced in by the inescapable perimeter of the Malecón. The poetic transformation of the individual self in an isolated fragment of the world defied the myth of the infinite or utopian island: José Martí’s lines gave way to Virgilio Piñera’s, incorporated into the title of Ramos’s work.
With the exhibition Migraciones II (Migrations II), featured in the Fifth Havana Biennial (1994), the artist started using the suitcase as a recurring element in her discourse on migration. The object, essential to any journey, was turned into a metaphoric expression of “rupture, excision, the trauma of distance well beyond its physical dimension. Personal experience in this case bursts into a wealth of suggestions that mix memories, ideals, and cruel realities” (Álvarez, 1994, 135). Covered by almost naïve figures that transmitted the complexity of the yearnings and the losses experienced by the traveler, these suitcases then began to sink—literally and metaphorically—shifting the narrative to the sea bottom. In its dreamlike atmosphere and the procedure involved in its assembly, Historia de las islas (History of the Islands), one of the most impressive of these suitcase works, alludes to the collage boxes of Joseph Cornell. Wide as a Louis Vuitton case, it contains images of the mystical Lamb; it makes reference to the ocean as well, in the conch-children resting at the bottom of the open case and in the use of an actual starfish to represent the star in the Cuban flag. The flag itself has been made from dyed feathers—a type of ready-to-go wings that Ramos added to other works of the same period, adjustable equipment that provides an escape akin to an angel’s flight.
A metaphor of flight, of the personal crisis linked to the bankruptcy of values, the submerged story depicted by Ramos does not make any concessions to political pamphlets or to sociological critiques. Instead, it channels with suggestive richness the anguish of the context in which it was created.
References: Catalogue, Sandra Ramos 1989-2003, Fuchu Art Museum, 2003, illust. cover, illust. p. 24.
—Abelardo Mena Chicuri